Pig farming in Nigeria is one of the most lucrative agricultural business any one can go into. This particular livestock farming is very lucrative that it can make you to be smiling at the within a short while of doing it if managed and planned very well.
Pigs are fat domestic animal which has a lot of fat and are farmed for meat purpose which is known as pork.
Although pigs are domestic and omnivorous animals, but there are wild pigs which lives in the forest and jungle, those ones are highly carnivorous and can eat both animals and man if possible.
Unlike any other livestock farming, pig is very destructive and prone to diseases, this is the very reason there is a high mortality rate among the piglets if they are not properly taken care of and they could destroy cemented floors and walls if not built strongly.
So you need to plan and make adequate Budget for all these before starting a pig farm in Nigeria.
In this article, we are going to learn in totality about pig farming business and how lucrative this farming Agri business can be. Follow me step by step!.
To start a pig farming business, there are things you need to budget/plan on, those things are:
LAND: Before you can ever think of doing any business or farming, land is very compulsory to have first as it is on it you will have to build your farm or business.
Get a good land in a good location. The land should be located far out of populated area or where house or houses is, this is because the dungs of the pigs produces very offensive odour which is very unhealthy, and the land should not be too far from the city or market place where you will have to sell your pigs or pork.
To get a land, it’s either you rent or you buy, I prefer buying than renting as I get to have the land for my self and avoid the monthly or yearly recurring rent fees. To buy land, it is advisable to do so at the rural areas,as lands in those places are not that costly. With N250k, or less, you could procure a plot of land.
The size of the land you could buy solely depends on the size of the farm you want to build. For small farm of about 50 pigs and below, a plot of land is ok, but for large farm, 5 plots or more is great to start with.
When choosing a location, make sure the land is not located in a warm environment full of sunshine, pigs hate warm or hot environment because of their too much fat,and the sunlight could cause sunburn on them. It is advisable to select a cool place guarded round by trees as they will serve as a shield for the sunlight and cool the environment with fresh air.
Also make sure that the land does not have erosion in it during the rainy season and also there is good road from your farm to market or city as these will reduce both the expenses of transportation and fighting erosion.
Preparation of land and house building: After you have gotten a good land in a perfect location for your pig farming, the next step is to prepare the place for the construction of the pig houses and building of the houses.
To prepare the land for the construction of the pig houses, you need to uproot the trees in the land and clear the place.
Use labourers to uproot all the trees in the land and clear the bushes. The cost of this is determined by the largeness of the land and the number of trees in the land.
After uprooting the trees and clearing the bush, I do advise you to hire those that will use the trees to construct planks for you, which you will use for roofing the pig houses, that’s if at all you want to roof their pens, if not, you could leave them like that as rain don’t disturb them, infact they use it to cool themselves,and be sure the sun won’t penetrate the pens.
This will go a long way to minimize the expenses that will occur to you for buying planks in the market.
Fence the land solidly and put wire or electric wire on the fence for security purpose.
When you are through with all I mentioned above, start the construction of your pig houses/house.
To do this, you will have to hire experts in the Animal farm construction field to do the work for you.
Or you can construct them yourself if you can and make sure everything is in place such as a pool for drinking, a place for eating and the rooms should be wide enough to accommodate the number of pigs you want to have in them and spare rooms to keep the piglets and the nursing sows.
Pig farming guide: When you are through with the construction of the farm and harm houses, the next step is to buy your pigs and start farming. Although it sounds simple, but it is not that simple, as there are guildlines to follow or you will end up have a lot of losses.
There are two ways you can start, it’s either you start with the piglets or you start with matured pigs.
I recommend you start with matured pigs as you are new into this farming business and lacks experience, this will reduce drastically the mortality rate than starting newly with the piglets, as those ones have high death rate.
Then when the pigs have piglets, you can then learn how to take care of the piglets and master it.
Before you buy your pigs, clean their. houses very well and apply some disinfectants and leave the doors open so that any disease in the pen will die. This should be done few days before the arrival of the pigs.
Your next question might be ” pigs are dirty animals, why should dirt’s and diseases affect them? ” To correct that taught, pigs are not in anyway dirty animals, only that their body is often too hot for them because of fat and they always like to stay in cool places like water.
So diseases do affect them much, and dirt breeds diseases, so they should be kept clean to avoid diseases affecting them.
Back to the topic!. When their pen are disinfected, bring them in and start rearing them.
It is great to buy more of sows (female pigs) than boars ( male pigs) because the female will have to multiply your farm with pigs by having piglets, so the more sows you have, the more chances of getting more piglets.
Although the male ones are important as they will be the ones to mate with the sows for them to have piglets, so, their number should be few compared to the female pigs, this is because a single boar could impregnate up to 20 sows in a month.
Make sure the number of pigs you have in a single pen is equal to the size of the pen and they could walk and move freely in the pen.
Feeding is one of the most important factors to consider before thinking of starting a pig farm. This is so because there is a saying “You are what you eat” this doesn’t only apply in human beings, but animals too, so pigs should be feed regularly if you want them to grow more fat and have good weight for market and also grow quickly.
The average feeding method for pigs is 2 times everyday and they should be feed with more proteinous foods and carbohydrate, with vitamins an minerals.
Foods like cooked yam, Cocoyam, eggs, cabbages, potatoes, carrots, pumpkin, etc should be feed to them in a large amount and also give them their feed and use the above foods I mentioned to supplement their feed.
There should be regular supply of water in larger quantity. You should have a good water supply system in the farm and their drinker should be very huge as pigs are heavy drinkers.
For instance, each piglets do drinks an average of 10 liters of water every day and adult pigs do drink about 50 liters of water every day, this is very huge amount of water and without a good water supply system, it will be tough to provide water for them.
For medication, you will have to meet your vet doctor or visit vet clinic or hospital so that they could direct you on the process of their medication and if any of them develops any sign of illness, meet your vet doctor!.
When the sows start giving birth to piglets, be fast and separate them to the spare rooms/pens and feed them regularly and more frequently as they are nursing and need to be sound and very healthy which will make their piglets healthy and sound also and reduce the level of illness that might affect them. Also if you notice that the piglets are unhealthy, meet your veterinary doctor for proper medication and medical advise.
By now you might be wondering why it is necessary to separate the sows with their piglets into empty pens, here is why, pigs are fat animals, crowding them in one pen, they might smash the piglets with their heavy weight or they might eat them when they get hungry, so it is very dangerous to keep the piglets in the same room that contains the non nursing sows and boars.
Talking about cleaning, their pens should be cleaned on an average of once a day, so it is important to consider a good waste disposal system as they defecates alot and large.
If the farm is large, it is very necessary to employ workers who will be doing the work for you and you pay them per month.
One of the necessary things that some farmers don’t do is to free their pigs to exercise a little while in the farm compound from time to time.
This is a good act because it makes the pigs to be healthy and lively and also it helps them with their heavy fatness as they could get used to moving freely and lively without minding their excessive fatness.
On an average, pigs take about 4 months to grow and mature for market size and a single sow could give birth to 12 to 15 piglets at a time, this is one of the reasons pig farming is very lucrative and has high ROI in a single sale.
Market potential of pig farming in Nigeria: Pig farming in Nigeria is one of the most lucrative agricultural business to go into, this is because the pork meat is on a very high demand and the faming process of this domestic animal is not tedious at all, as you only have to feed them once or twice a day and clean their pens once a day.
In Nigeria pork meat is exported to other countries, this increases both the bank alerts on bank account of the farmer, the middle man dealer and even the country’s economy, so pig farming is a very good business to venture in to.
In some cities in Nigeria, pork meat is very costly as an adult pig goes between N25k up to N35k in the market, so this is a huge business potential for farmers to rush in to and start be smiling at the bank in a very short while of less than 5 months.
Let’s imagine you have 100 pigs in your farm ( which anybody could do) and they mature in 4 months time or less, and you sold each of them for about N25k, N25k x 100= 2.5million naira. This is very huge and imagine when you have up to a thousand or more pigs, you will definitely be very rich.
Apart from the pork meat which pigs are known for, the dung from the pig pens are sold also. You are surprised right?. Yes the dungs are sold to farmers and they are a little bit costly, as a 50kg bag of pig dungs could go for between N500 to N700.
Farmers use the dungs from pig to produce almost any farm crop you could think of, especially vegetables. It nourishes the farm land and and aids any crop planted on it to do very well and produce nice harvests, so the pig dung is very important and a good source of income also.
I hope you go into this pig farming business, especially if you reside in Nigeria.
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